Don A. Dillman, Washington State University
Considerable interest exists in the joint use of Web and mail questionnaires to collect sample survey data. This mixed-mode interest stems from two important considerations. First, nearly one-third of all U.S. households either do not have Internet access or use it infrequently (less than once a week), making it unlikely that Internet surveys will be completed by representative samples of all households (Pew Research Center, 2010). Second, address-based sampling (ABS), which appears to be our most adequate household sample frame (Iannacchione, 2011), makes it possible to use mail contacts to request Web survey responses from those who are able and willing to respond in that way. For those who cannot or will not respond over the Internet, mail questionnaires provide an alternative means of responding that is likely to improve the demographic representativeness of respondents (Messer and Dillman, 2011).